Online Book:The Theory and Practice of Criminal Justice in Africa

The Theory and Practice of Criminal Justice in Africa


Etannibi E. O. Alemika,  Richard Bowd, Simon Robins,  J. Nnamdi Aduba, Emily I Alemika, Irvin Kinnes, Annie Barbara Chikwanha

Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2009.


Chapter 1

Criminal justice in Africa

Chapter 2

Criminal Justice Norms, politics, institutions, processes and constraints

Chapter 3

Status quo or traditional resurgence

Chapter 4

Restorative approaches to criminal justice in Africa: Case of Uganda

Chapter 5

Bail and Criminal Justice Administration in Nigeria

New Panamanian Criminal Procedure Code

Panama is the latest Latin American country planning to introduce accusatorial reforms to its criminal procedure regime. A draft Criminal Prodecure Code (Código Procesal Penal) is currently being discussed in the National Assembly. If the draft becomes law, Panama will join over a dozen other Latin American countries that have moved from inquisitorial systems to accusatorial ones. The new Panamanian code includes oral proceedings at trial and the separation of prosecutors and judges.  A Spanish version of the draft Criminal Procedure Code is available at: